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Gulgong Town

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Gulgong (Co. Phillip) 32°22’S. 149°32’E., 26 km N. of Mudgee; founded by Tom Saunders, surveyed 1870, village gaz. 1872, thrived in 1870s, munic. 1876-1940, decl. National Trust conservation area 1975; formerly mining (gold disc. 1870 by Tom Saunders, more discoveries 1871 and 1872, production peaked 1872), then wool, beef, wheat, oats, flour, kaolin, poultry, pigs, dairying, fruit, hort.; ambulance station; Angl. C. 1871, demolished 1876, new one (St Luke’s) b. 1874-76 by Charles Wain, Henry Bennett and James Beattie, d. by Edmund Thomas Blacket and Harold Robert Hardwick, re-roofed 1909, damaged 1912, repairs 1997 d. by Barbara Hickson; brewery (Eli Allan, James Jackson and Thomas Largey) 1872; bushfires 1964 and 2001; butter factory (H. R. Denison) b. 1891 by G. Turner, d. by William Henry Sadlier, burnt down 1897; carriage-works H. M. Rudd and C. Blane) 1901; cemetery (2,915 graves 1870s+) 1872, incl. lawn cemetery and columbarium; CH 1872, renovated 1877, closed, reused 1899, demolished 1901, new one b. 1899 by R. T. Hill, additions 1935 by H. M. Bennett; cholera 1891; Cong. C. 1872; cordial factories: Alfred Brigden, taken over and modernized 1929 by A. J. Brigden, J. Curran, closed 1903, Albert E. Turner; diphtheria 1894-95; electricity 1923; FB (station b. 1935, new one 2017); fires 1865, 1872, 1944; flour mills: William Lee 1885 and Christopher Reid Young (b. 1894 by G. H. Rhodes, sold 1902 to James Loneragan Ltd., who opened new Golden Gate mill 1913, taken over 1914 by John Edward Loneragan, later became James Loneragan Milling Co. Pty. Ltd., closed 2011); hailstorms 1912 and 1918; hospital b. 1872 by White, replaced 1901 by S. J. Pyne, additions 1906 also by Pyne, d. by Harold Robert Hardwick, additions 1939, repairs 1954 by G. F. Knight, additions 1965, closed 2010; ice works (Leslie Whenlock Norris), sold 1945 to Clarence Roy Fragar; lime-kiln (Mark Smith); mines: Adams Lead 1870-71, 1876, 1891, 1925, Black Lead (South Napoleon Co., Gulgong Gold Options Ltd., Black Lead NL Co.) 1870-90, 1924, 1932, 1935, Perseverance Lead (Caledonian Gold Mining Co., Digger Prince Mining Co., Cullengoral Alluvials) 1871-72, 1896, 1923-25, Old 44 Shaft, Red Hill (Golden Hill Co., Mt. Boppy Gold Mining Co. Ltd., Red Hill Gold Mining Co.) 1871-72, 1906-8, 1910, 1915-16; PO 1870, new one b. 1879 by D. McFarlane and G. Henry, additions and alterations 1909 by W. Murphy; powerhouse (Leslie Whenlock Norris), sold 1945 to Clarence Roy Fragar, closed 1950; Pres. C. 1872, new one (St Andrew’s) b. 1910 by M. H. Bennett, d. by Joseph Porter Power and John Shedden Adam, jun.; PS (incl. lock-up) b. 1881 by D. McFarlane; quarry (limestone) estab. by Mark Smith; rabbit freezing works (Leslie Whenlock Norris) 1932, sold 1945 to Clarence Roy Fragar; railway dam 1909; railway turntable, 50 ft (15.2 m), replaced 1913, 60 ft (18.3 m); reservoirs (concrete): 150,000 gal (681.9) kl) and 250,000 gal (1,136.5 kl); rifle range; Rom. Cath. C. (St John the Baptist) b. 1872 by P. W. Kelleher, destroyed 1885 replacement b. 1890 by George Turner, d. by John Francis Hennessy and Joseph Ignatius Sheerin (known as Sacred Heart till 1903 then reverted to St John the Baptist, damaged 1912); RS 1909, station b. by Reid and Castles, closed 1975; sale-yards (John Tuxford) 1900, new yards (H. A. Chick) 1937; Salv. Army. C. 1922, reused; sawmills: S. Buckman (2 children killed 1917, mill taken over 1920 by James Loneragan Co.) and James Edwin Davies; schools: primary 1868, reopened 1874 in new school b. by Charles Sillington, damaged 1885, new one 1892, repairs 1900 by Hohnhorst and Barton, new building b. 1924 by J. A. Carle, additions 1966 and 1978, new school 1993, and HS 1981, fire damage restoration 1983; sewerage augmentation 1971; silo 1955; squalls 1871 and 1901; storms 1878, 1885 (nearly every building damaged), 1893, tannery (W. R. Jackson) 1874, destroyed 1878; telegraph 1871, new office 1872, additions 1874 by W. J. White, new one b. 1879 by D. McFarlane and G. Henry; TX 1906, automatic 1980; typhoid 1879; Union C. (Parochial); Unit. C. (orig. Wes. Meth.) b. 1901 by S. J. Pyne, d. by Harold Robert Hardwick; water supply 1933, augmentation 1987; Wes. Meth. C. 1871, reused; pop. 3,228 (1871), 1,642 (1881), 1,283 (1891), с.1,550 (1895), 1,579 (1901), 1,577 (1911), 1,723 (1933), с.1,600 (1941), 1,580 (1947), 1,473 (1954), 1,396 (1961), 1,441 (1966), 1,486 (1971), 1,618 (1976), 1,740 (1981), 1,988 (1986), 2,042 (1991), 2,018 (1996), 2,018 (2001), 1,907 (2006), 1,866 (2011)1 .


27 January 1872
View of Gulgong.
LOOKING from the Hospital Hill, Gulgong presents a very busy and important appearance. In the distance the blue prominent peaks of ranges about Cooyal stand out against the eastern sky. Nearer, and to the left of the picture, the huge mounds of red, white, and blue stuff indicate the locality of the Black Lead and the Happy Valley - the spots from which the present wealth of the gold-field is being extracted. To the right are seen the workings on the Red Hill, with the red flag of the Golden Hill Company flying over their claim, and denoting that they have struck the precious metal.
The valley between is thickly studded with the white tents and bark huts of the diggers, whilst the fore-ground is occupied by the town of Gulgong itself, with its numerous publics, stores, and shops of all descriptions, sizes, and architectural designs.
The population of the diggings is estimated at about 10,000, comprising people from all parts of the world, and from every diggings in Australia, English, French, German, and Chinese. The men of course predominate, but I was very glad to see a fair proportion of the softer sex and a great many children. The population is, without exception, the most orderly for a diggings I ever saw. They seem a quiet self-reliant class - working hard all day, and at night promenading the streets to make their little purchases or hear the latest news. I saw but one or two cases of drunkenness during my stay, and although I observed a strong body of police there did not appear to be as much occasion for their services as I noticed in my omnibus drive down Brickfield-hill.
The buildings are all composed of wood, calico, or bark, presenting strange contrasts by the variety of colours and designs.
The finest building is certainly the new Roman Catholic Church just completed, and reflecting great credit on that congregation. Near it is the Wesleyan Chapel, also a very neat structure, and on the rise of the hill the English Church, to which is now being added a respectable parsonage. Selfe's Hotel, at the junction of Queen and Herbert streets, being the only two-storied house in town, and on the top of the hill, towers above its fellows, and gives a permanent look to the place. The public-houses appear to be well kept, and all doing a quiet steady trade. Good meals, good liquor, civility, and attention are to be obtained everywhere, so far as my observations extended. The stores also are well-stocked, and the articles extremely cheap. The two Chinese Stores in Herbert-street are a feature in the town. Their assistants behind the counters are all Celestials, and their expertness in dealing and the ready manner in which they have become acquainted with English weights, measures, and prices, speaks well for the persevering industry of the race.
There are four churches, which I believe are well attended; three schools also well attended. A hospital, which I am happy to say, is not so well attended, although liberally supported. There is a good theatre, under the management of Miss Joey Gougenheim, supported by a good company of artists, and apparently well patronised by the public.
The Court-house, and the police barracks are substantially built on the top of the Red Hill, and immediately on the Mudgee-road.
There appears to be no doubt as to the permanency and extent of the Gulgong. It is not my place to describe the different loads, or their prospective value. I leave that to your regular correspondent, who has faithfully kept you posted up in those matters; but I will just mention that the country around for miles, bears the same character, and is being gradually opened up, and I doubt not, Gulgong will remain for many years the centre of a very large and rich gold district.
Things at the reef, says the Moruya Examiner, are not progressing so pleasantly as we expected; indeed, unless a better understanding is come to between Mr. Guy and the miners, it appears probable that there will be a disastrous and to all the hopes that were entertained us to the reef opening. If we understand aright, Mr. Guy requires a sixth of the gold besides 15s a ton for crushing. This has disheartened the claim workers on the reef, and we understand that things are consequently at a standstill. We trust, however, that the demand will not be insisted on, and that the unpleasant feeling that exists us to the matter will be dissipated2 .

5 October 1872
Steering due north from Mudgee for eighteen miles, the town of Gulgong is reached. The first six miles fences are passed on each side of the road enclosing paddocks. agricultural and pastoral. The level nature of the country is favourable to the squatter, the farmer, and the traveller. To the latter but little indication of the mineral wealth he passes over is apparent, although it is well known that many a golden lead or auriferous quartz vein is crossed on the way. Were it not for the existence of a solitary shaft surrounded by a heap of greenstone which may be seen on the left in Cox's paddock, few would imagine that so close to Mudgee payable quartz reefs existed. Even Mudgee itself is said to stand in the centre of a gold-field as yet unproved. The existence of the precious metal in the River is well known, and perhaps in years to come leads will be traced through the paddocks now used as sheep runs. It is to be hoped, when the finds do take place, that they will return a fair recompense to their adventurous prospectors. Seven miles brings the traveller to the Green Swamp, where the engine and machinery of the Gulgong Gold Mining Company is fast approaching completion.
Two miles from the Swamp a flat known as Slasher's is reached, where the extensive wool-washing establishment of Atkinson and Dean is in full work, if not actually washing, receiving wool. A busy season is before the proprietors, as the shearing time has just set in. Slasher's Flat past, the river Cudgegong, almost dry at this season, is crossed; rich alluvial flats, well timbered on each side, forms the roadway until the diggings of the Three Mile is reached, now almost abandoned. Many lucky parties succeeded here in getting on the gutter. About twelve months ago it was first opened, and although the miles of leads never yielded many "piles" yet it afforded good wages claims, and, was instrumental in affording working parties fair wages. The country from the "Three Mile" is slightly undulating, showing outcrops of quartz on nearly every rise in slate with belts of granite. The soil where disturbed, may be seen to be the peculiar "red," indicating its aptness for the pick of the miner or the plough of the farmer, as rich crops of wheat from it can be raised. In due time the township of Gulgong appears, its buildings reminding one of the rushes of yore as the galvanized roofs glisten in the sunlight. The houses, stores, hotels, &c., are large and commodious, but all are of a temporary nature.
Gulgong is not singular in its buildings. The followers of alluvial rushes have ere this found that business is fleeting. As leads work out so does business tide away. Hence have we buildings of a temporary nature; and, although the town of Gulgong may be reckoned three years old, yet not a single brick building stands on its site. One two-storied hotel (Selff's Sportman's Arms) is the only structure as yet bearing its inmates from the natural earth's level.
To give an account of Gulgong in a glowing style is now impossible, the rush has subsided long ere this. Still, a fair return by escort in shown - in the best of its days the fortnightly yield of gold was on the average 10,000 oz.; the present time, or last return, was 3500 oz. - not at all a bad one. This is mainly due to the alluvial workings; by-and-bye, the numerous quartz lodes will begin to turn out their golden treasures, and, mayhap, in its progress Gulgong may once more rival its former escorts.
The township, unlike many mining towns, is well situated, standing on the hill slope, with a chance for thorough drainage. The streets are wide and now in process of being made under the superintendence of a local committee. The stores and hotels, if not permanent, are large and doing fair trade. The banks are represented by three branches - the New South Wales, Joint Stock, and Oriental - all held in fair buildings with good accommodation of the rough and ready sort.
The schools number two - Catholic and Church of England. The former is the largest in attendance, 172 children, the weekly average, crowd the schoolhouse, a bark building. Mr. J. C. Dillon is the master. The Church of England is made temporary use of for school purposes, under the charge of Mrs. Park, with an attendance of 40.
The church is a wooden structure; the Rev. W. Alworth is the pastor. Several improvements are about to be made in the interior.
The Roman Catholic Chapel is the largest building in the town, built of wood, with a nice exterior, at a cost of £700. This sum was, by the exertions of the Rev. J. O. Donovan and a few of his energetic parishioners, raised in a few weeks by small contributions.
The Congregational church, a neat wooden building, has a fair congregation; the Rev. James Trevor is the minister. The Wesleyans also have a small church, and the Presbyterian church is almost completed.
The telegraph office is situated in the camp reserve, ad joining the Court-house. The telegraph master, Mr. Tierney, cannot boast of comfortable quarters, as the cottage he resides and holds office in is unfinished; an outlay of something under £100 would complete and make the building comfortable, The Court-house is a substantial rough wooden structure; T. A. Brown, Esq., is the Police Magistrate and Commissioner, Mr. Donaldson the Clerk of Petty Sessions. There has been, and is, any amount of litigation on the field, principally mining disputes and appeal cases. Block v. frontage on the various leads gives ample employment to the lawyers, and a large proportion of the legal fraternity finds remunerative employment in and about the district. The police force consists of two sergeants, four foot and three mounted constables, with two detectives, under the control of sub-inspector Medley. This gentleman has from Mudgee, his head-quarters, a large district to supervise - Tambaroora, Hay, Windeyer, Kean's Swamp, Rylstone, Gulgong, Talbragar, Mundooran, and Coonabarabran. These townships cover a large area of country. A school of arts, possessing a plain but large reading-room, is at the disposal of the inhabitants, and is well patronised. The hospital, a substantial wooden building, erected by contributions from the public, at a cost of £400, has proved a most useful institution. Dr. R. H. K. Bennett is the medical officer.
The number of accidents and causes of distress and sickness which call for assistance is a heavy strain on the district. As yet, no pecuniary assistance has been received from the Government. A large sum is due for maintenance which, I believe, is on the Estimates. The hospital is at present in debt to the amount of about £400, spite of the local efforts of an energetic committee. Two theatres, with stock companies have been supported in the town; at present, however, through the falling off of population, their business commences to languish, although good companies and startling novelties are from time to time produced. The last new lead opened, the Home Rule, caused a rush and a small township to be formed six miles from Gulgong. This took many away from the old township. At the Home Rule it is estimated close on 6000 miners are located. With the rush went many of the business people. Thirty-five public-houses and several stores have been erected there, and the leads so far are yielding satisfactory results.
The police station there requires better accomodation. At present the three constables stationed there occupy a tent, if a prisoner is taken the only means of keeping is by chaining the culprit to one of the iron stretchers in the tent or to a tree. It would be well to have small portable camp buildings at hand for sudden emergencies, as in the case of rushes the cost would be trivial and the benefit great.
In my last article I concluded with a description of the township of Gulgong, giving a brief account of its buildings. I will now endeavour to give an idea of the lay of the country round it, and the various leads. Before doing it will be necessary to state that the miners working in the vicinity and on the leads of Gulgong have been sadly hampered by the number of acres of purchased land which surround the township, and through which the principal leads have been traced. This has led to the question of mining on private property - a question of great moment, and one that will require legislative consideration. Taking a glance at a plan of Gulgong and the surrounding country, one can easily see how perplexing it must have been to parties engaged in tracing the various leads. The township may be said to be surrounded on all sides by large selections principally held by the Rouse family, well known old residents of the district. It may be considered an in justice by the miners when a large royalty is demanded of them for the privilege of working lands purchased long before the gold discovery - a clear fifth has been the usual demand. Now, looking at the matter in its proper light, in reality no injustice is perpetrated upon them. The family before mentioned as holders of property have, as a rule, made liberal terms by granting extended claims larger in area than allowed by the mining rules. When parties purchase Crown lands unhampered by mining restrictions, on the principle that all men have a right to make the best of a fair honest purchase, the justice of fair claims for the right of abstracting the mineral wealth found in those selections must be acknowledged. It may be possible for the Legislature in time to come to put in certain restrictions as regards mining on private property. Purchasers with these enactments before them will understand clearly what is demanded of them if golden leads pass through their property.
Gold was first discovered in the vicinity of Gulgong on a hill south-west of the township. The lead traced from this hill is known as Adam's. Following down the same direction, a lead known as the Moonlight was discovered and worked; it was not one of extraordinary richness. Following along the same direction, on the road to Guntawang, the Caledonian lead, a deep one, has been traced to Rouse's paddock, close to its boundary fence; in one case, and in one only, has its winding brought it outside the fences - that of No. 17. The sinking on this lead was to a depth of 170 feet, with much rock and water to contend against. When traced to that depth workings had to be discontinued, as it was found impossible for the labour requited to be rendered remunerative.
The paddock where the Caledonian lead existed is a large one of 4000 acres. South of it is a selection of 1200 acres; in the latter the existence of payable gold is a recognised fact, but as yet it has been merely prospected. West of this comes the property of Mr. George Rouse, embracing 1200 acres of golden country, known as the Biraganbil Gold Mining Company, floated some four months back on very liberal terms. The right of mining held by this Company exists over 21 years; the terms are 5 per cent, on the gold raised, which must be regarded as highly liberal. Thirteen weeks back the Company commenced operations by securing an efficient manager in the person of Mr. Ernest Bieber, and operations at once were commenced on a grand but economical scale. The amount of capital placed at the disposal of Mr. Bieber was small; and although the operations, so far proceeded with, are really extensive, yet a balance remains in hand to meet current expenditure. Several shafts of an average depth of fifty feet were put down by tender, four of them at the present time are working on the leader gutter; the latter term is one by which miners on this field usually know the run of gold of importance. This gutter is really worthy of the term; it shows a good depth of wash, averaging 2½ feet. The country is easily worked, and timbered, and the quantity of wash paddocked or grassed at the present time, estimated 1000 loads, goes far to prove the Company have not been idle.
The shafts are connected by drives a distance of over 600 feet along the lead, and fully 1000 feet of single driving has been performed in the short space of three months. But little ground has been blocked, the principal amount of the wash having been raised from the drives. It is in tended, for economy's sake, to sluice all wash raised. To carry this into effect, a tramway leads from the shafts to the creek or Cudgegong View. On the river, distant from the worktops about half-a-mile, a 10-horse power portable engine has been placed above flood-mark for the purpose of pumping water to supply the sluice-boxes. By the courtesy of Mr. Bieber, the manager, I was permitted to examine the underground workings, and test from any portion of them the quality of the wash. This I did by washing several dishes, and the result was highly satisfactory, and the dirt I estimate to go from 10 dwts. to 1 oz. to the load right through, so far as the ground has been tested. The tramway, trucks, &c, as yet are only in progress; piles have been driven to the required level, and cuttings made through the bill where requisite. A few weeks will see, with favourable weather, the rails laid down, Washing can then be proceeded with, and share holders can look forward hopefully to obtaining a good dividend.
North of the township we find three leads, the Parramatta, Cosmopolitan, and Black Swan. The Parramatta, the one nearest to the township, is worked principally on blocks, and at present is almost exhausted; although pay able, it did not prove so rich as the Happy Valley, the lead running almost parallel to the east of it. The Cosmopolitan, which lies between the Black Lead and the Black Swan, has only been recently opened. The prospecting claim is considered a good one, and will shortly commence washing. The Black Swan may be considered a continuation of the Cosmopolitan, although yet no junction has been found. This lead is at present at a depth of over 100 feet, and many payable claims are at work, some of them rich. The depth of wash varies in the three leads last mentioned, and many blank patches exist, making the work of prospecting in fallowing it heavy and expensive. Down the flat the sinking of shafts has been much retarded by the existence of a heavy layer of basalt, which has to be gone through in parts to a depth of sixty feet before the bed rocks is met. Shafts on this and other leads on the flat take on the average eight or nine months to bottom, and the expense of each may be computed as high as £300. East of the town ship two leads were prospected with ill success - the Royal Standard and the Star of the South. Some of the claims paid, others but ill requited the amount of labour bestowed upon them.
The "trump card" of Gulgong gold-field is now approached, running north-east of the township, named the Happy Valley lead. The gutter here was of extraordinary richness; many of the claims gave fortunes to the share holders; 6000oz. fell to the lot of one of the richest claims, No. 5 on the lead, 10 oz. to the load in parts - even the poorer portions of the claims went from 4 to 6 oz. Strange to say, the prospecting claim at the upper part of the lead was barely a payable one; the prospectors, however, received or were offered, a substantial recognition of their efforts from the more fortunate claim-holders lower down. The prospecting claim on the Black Lead, which junctions with the Happy Valley, was also a poor one, and a similar course was adopted to requite the prospectors for their loss.
The claims on the leads north and east of the town last described are now almost worked out, therefore a falling off has occurred in the fortnightly escorts. The Black Swan and the Black Lead are still in progress, growing deeper, and making the work of prospecting through the basaltic nature of the country both expensive and protracted.
Six miles to the south-east of the township of Gulgong, the Home Rule rush now in action some six months, is affording employment to a large population, estimated at 6000. Numerous paddocks, principally the property of Messrs. Lowe, Stott, and Rouse, have been found to contain leads, some of them very rich. The Home Rule, Lowe's paddock; the Nil Desperandum, and Lily May are considered the best. Litigation has been the order of the day. Block versus frontage again stopped the way, and much loss of time to the miners was the result. Affairs now are assuming a quieter aspect, and the claims may be considered on the various leads to be in active operation. The sinking in parts is 100 feet. The country is of a far easier nature than the leads worked close to Gulgong. The ground is of the bad standing class, and will require great care and close timbering, or I much fear several accidents must occur. A short time previous to my visit, one poor unfortunate man met his death by the falling of a large flake in a drive. Double timbering and lathing would be advisable. Of course this will prove an expensive process, but expense should be a secondary consideration when the lives of the working hands are endangered by parsimony or careless Timbering. On all the leads working at a depth the custom is to raise wash or earth by the means of a horse whip-not the article to be seen in a driver's hands, but a contrivance consisting of an upright post over the shaft, supporting a wheel over which the rope passes; the rope is then passed through a snatch block and attached to a harnessed horse that has a long walk, - thus the stuff is rapidly raised to the surface. The horses engaged in this particular work are, as a rule, well-trained, and simply require the word of the man at the brace to raise or lower.
The frontage on leads, declared under the frontage rule, 40 feet per man, is allowed along the line of lead; when struck a flag is hoisted on the supposed course, and 160 feet in width is measured off; then the block claims take possession of the ground on either side. The size of block claims allowed is 160 feet by 240; under the new regulations 50 feet per man is allowed to frontage holders. Much has teen said and written against the frontage system, but many of the leads worked on the Gulgong field have proved the necessity of such rules. When the sinking of shafts becomes an item of heavy expenditure, the parties putting them down deserve some chance of a good-size block as a reward for their labour. It proves exceedingly provoking to parties sinking under the block system when, after months of labour, a duffer is bottomed, or a shaft which proves the ground held by the party only to contain a few feet of the run.
In my next article I will deal with the reefs I have visited during my stay. Many of them give promise of stability, and well worthy of the attention of capitalists3 .


4 October 1884

General View of Gulgong 1884
General View of Gulgong 1884


20 December 1895
THE history of Gulgong, written by one of the identities of its parmiest days, would afford thrilling reading, for wherever the gold fever swept, with its accompaning wave of population there was "life" in the fullest sense of the term. The land around Gulgong was thrown open in 1870, the place being a little hamlet, of insignificant proportions, and amongst the first selectors were the Messrs. Homers, Stotts, and others. Gold was being got in small quantities for some time, but rumors of its presence induced active search, and then the life commenced. Quickly the population grew, discovery after discovery awakened enthusiasm amongst the miners, and Gulgong had a population of some 20,000 people. All the characteristics of a gold field were visible, when the feverish rush of a mining population flowed through the town, and when the diggers left their work remained behind. The town has evidences everywhere of its raison d'etre, but gradually a later style of architecture is being adopted, showing the stability of the town and district. Gulgong is blessed with a coterie of public spirited residents, who are quick to take up any movement for the benefit of the town, and the popularity of the Debating Society is an evidence that the rising generation is not lacking in this spirit.
As will be seen from our illustrations, there are several very substantial structures in the town, and there are others not represented. The Town Hall is a splendid structure, built upon lines which promise to supply the requirements of the town in this direction for many years yet. If anything like a big crowd is anticipated at any gathering, there is the famous old Prince of Wales Theatre, in which the stars of the theatrical world of 25 years ago played nightly to thousands of people. That was the time when it was always a difficult matter to pass round "the corner," owing to the crowd of sharebrokers, speculators, and miners. Here was the usual place, too, for open-air meetings, especially when any miners' grievances needed ventilating.
Referring to our illustrations it will be seen that the churches are substantial buildings. St. John's R.C. Church is a roomy structure, comparatively new, and in every way suitable to the requirements of the worshippers. In it a splendid stained-glass window has been placed in memory of the late Mr. McDonough, who was a great worker for the church and cause at Gulgong. The Rev. Father Long is the parish priest in charge.
St. Luke's Church of England is a very superior structure, and a comfortable one. It has seen good service, but is still in good order. The Rev. F. Haviland has charge of the parish.
The Bank of New South Wales conducts business in a very imposing structure in the heart of the town, which, erected on an eminence, towers high above its surroundings, and being built of white sandstone, is a conspicuous object for a great distance around. Mr. Voss is the manager, and has as accountant Mr. Barnes.
The Butter Factory, although one of the most complete plants in the district, has had an unfortunate experience. Somehow the enterprise of the promoters was ahead of that of that of the surrounding residents, and though the splendid opportunity was afforded them of becoming large suppliers, the company could not get enough milk to profitably carry on with. The whole concern is now in the market.
Coming to the cuts on the opposite page we have first the Town Hall, a fine new structure, but as yet without the tower shown in the front, which is in the original plan.
The Court House and Police Barracks have been in use for many years, and the good people of Gulgong are hoping that in the near future they will be granted a new court house, with improvements to the barracks. Sergeant Steele is the very capable officer in charge, with Constable Helsham (mounted) and Constable Joyce (foot.)
The third view is looking down Herbert-street. In the distance are the famous Black Lead and Happy Valley Lead, the scenes of much excitement, and which have produced thousands of ounces of gold. Old miners are confident that there is yet abundant wealth to be won from these deposits.
The Post and Telegraph Offices are not particularly imposing, but they are comfortable and convenient, and Post-master W. Clarke, with his assistants Brown, Heard, and Saunders (letter carrier) are able to transact the large amount of business passing through with expedition.
The fifth view looks down Mayne street, from the famous "corner" of Herbert-street. The alignment of the street suggests the rough and ready pegging out of miners, who also were responsible for the narrowness of the thoroughfare. A marvellous business has been done, however, in these streets, and can be done again if necessary.
No mention of Gulgong would be complete without reference to the sterling qualities of her townsmen, and the manner in which her public men pull together. Among those ever ready to help in the town's advancement may be named Messrs. W. Thompson, F. W. Russell, C. R. Young, J. Powell, R. White, R. Stear, J. Hewitt, R. W. Heard and J. Tuxford, whose lead is always loyally followed by the town-folk generally. Though the days of Gulgong have come and gone, the golden grain and the golden fleece will yet cause the money to roll into the district.
If a good lead of gold is not discovered in the near future it will not be the fault of Mr. Frame Fletcher, who, representing English capital, has persistently stuck to the field in spite of all discouragements5 .


13 February 1897
Situated about 210 miles west from Sydney and within 20 of Mudgee, this once famous and still vigorous gold field is at present receiving much quiet attention from "Uitlander" and local capitalist alike, and there are not wanting abundant signs of such a revival in mining matters as opens up possibilities of a return to something like bygone prosperity. When it is remembered that in the first seven years succeeding its discovery the aluvial workings of this field produced more than 16 tons of the noble metal, and that its known record up to the present time covers the enormous total of over 24 tons of good yellow gold, it will be readily conceded an important position among the leading gold fields of Australia. How many an old miner must sigh over the memory of those glorious times when pounds weight to the load - aye, often to the dish - were obtained with little or no trouble, and when the reckless enjoyment of life on a new and rich gold field with 27,000 rollicking, spending inhabitants was at its full. And there are still on the field representatives of that good old time whose faith in the coming of a great and grand revival grows stronger day by day. lt may be thus ordained and is sincerely to be hoped that the rewards so richly merited will not long be denied those big hearted men to whose persistent and patient expenditure of capital and years of life and labor are due the present stage of development and brighter prospects. The general opinion current, which is borne out by the authority of geologists past and present, is that the "golden age" of Gulgong has yet to be. In the earlier days, while still the "Premier Gold Field," lucky Gulgong diggers were not infrequently rewarded by nuggets ranging as high as 60oz and even 100oz. The leads which yielded this gold were for the most part worked out, and the problem as to the source of the rich deposits at length began to exercise the minds of miners and speculators. It must be apparent, to everybody except those who believe in the theory that gold was deposited in the gravels of the ancient watercourses by concentrated chemical action, that the presence of these auriferous gravels, has been occasioned by the denudation of reefs in the vicinity of the leads. And it is to these reefs that the miner, after nearly twenty years of lassitude, has turned his attention. Gulgong is situated at the northern end of a range of hills composed of granite, silurian slates, schists, conglomerates, and limestone, through which are intruded masses of diorite, traversed by quartz leaders and reefs, the denudation of which has been going on for ages. Perhaps the richest of them have been covered up by the alluvial deposits laid down by the rivers and streams, which coming down in torrents, robbed them of their auriferous treasures - a belief which appears to be borne out by recent discoveries in the Happy Valley where, after sinking through 100ft of alluvium beneath the old bed of the ancient watercourse, a defined reef, which has yielded 6oz to the ton from a trial crushing, has been picked up. It remains, however, yet to be proved whether this reef is a permanent one. Still the fact that other splendid reefs are now being opened out and worked in the district by syndicates that have every faith in their ultimate success augurs that Gulgong, if she cannot quite lay claim to the title of the "Ballarat of New South Wales," is likely to come forth as a permanent reefing field, and if the richness of the alluvial leads is any indication of the auriferous quality of the reefs from whence the golden gravels were obtained, should shortly double her output of the alluring metal. lt must not be supposed that the alluvial deposits have been altogether worked out. Such is not at all the case, as the yield from this source is steadily on the increase. Helvetia, Stringybark, and Yamble have created no end of mining activity, though fortunes are not made in a day as in the olden times; and, again, search has been made for what is known as the deep lead6 .


26 October 1901
(By "Nugget.")
The town of Gulgong is situated 198 miles north-west from Sydney, and is the centre of a rich gold-mining and agricultural district. The topography of the country consists of low, rolling hills and wide, alluvial plains. The country in general is very fertile. The hills are mostly basaltic, Silurian or Devonian; while the plains north and east are carboniferous. Gold was discovered there about thirty years ago by Mr. T. Saunders and J. Dietz. Immediately a large rush set in, and for several years large quantities of gold were got. The population has now, however, sunk to about 2000, and they are sustained more by farming than by gold mining. The town is, however, still prosperous; there are but few empty houses. Mr. Young's large premises and flour mill are a credit to the town. The store is especially creditable, being most substantially erected, commodious, replete with every article required in everyday life, and lighted by the electric light. The mill is of brick, produces excellent flour, and is a great convenience to the district. Mr. Marsh is also erecting a new brick store. Rudd and Blane have started a new wheelwright and blacksmith's shop, and do a good trade. There are four churches - the Wesleyan, Church of England, Presbyterian, and Roman Catholic. The edifice belonging to the last-named body is a magnificent building, conspicuously set on a hill. A fine new hospital is being erected a short distance south-west of the town. There are two schools, with an average attendance of 130 pupils, a Town Hall, free public library, post office and savings bank, courthouse, and police camp. There are several hotels, two banks, numerous stores, and private dwellings. The municipality comprises 30 square miles, and there are 68 miles of streets and roads. The ratable property is of an annual value of £8100. Communication is by coach to the Mudgee Railway Station, 18 miles distant. The gold field is considered to be about eight miles east and west, and nine miles north and south; but, as a matter of fact, these are merely arbitrary dimensions, for gold exists all the way in the Silurian and Devonian measures from Cape Howe to Cape York, and from West Australia to the Dromedary, and one gold field is so closely dovetailed into another that we may talk of gold-producing districts, but not of gold fields. Gulgong is a portion of a gold field which overspreads the whole continent, but not visible on the surface in every measure.
The mainstay of Gulgong today is the wheat and wool-growing, fruit, vine, and dairying industries, and for these the soil and climate is well suited. Bee-farming and poultry-keeping are also carried on to some extent, and the flats and hills most suitable to these industries are all devoted to one or other of them. I find that the Government, or it might be nearer the mark to say a section of the inhabitants, is in favor of selling a portion of the gold fields adjacent to the town, while the mining population strenuously oppose it. Of course, arguing from one set of circumstances, it is quite right that the land should be sold, as there are portions of every gold field, on which the precious metal has never been found, while arguing from the other side, it would be entirely wrong to dispose of the land, because, though gold never has been found up to the present, there is no reason that it never will be found. We can all point out instances in which old deserted fields have been sold, and, years after, good payable gold has been found thereon. In a country where there is so much available land lying idle, or at all events not put to its productive uses, there is no necessity to infringe on gold fields or commons for any purpose other than they were first intended; in fact, a system of leasing such as now exists for small areas of land, with a right to enter by paying surface damages, would seem to meet all the requirements of the case. There is certainly no sense in allowing large areas of good soil to be irredeemably damaged for a small quantity of gold, which would not pay for one crop off the soil. I have seen acres upon acres of good vegetable loam, 30ft or 40ft deep, destroyed for a quantity of gold that would barely pay working expenses, and where one acre of the land for agricultural purposes was worth, at present rates, more than the value of the gold taken out of it. In cases of this kind the prospective value of the land ought to be considered from a national standpoint, and the land conserved for future uses. On the other hand, the Government - which is the guardian of the people's rights - should not be too ready to part with the soil on gold fields, as the land might be wanted for mining purposes any day. The lodes and mining fields in and about Gulgong may be called into life and action any time. The flat lands may be used for water conservation or the erection of machinery, and the hills may be required for mining fields. When such huge mineral belts and lodes as the Red Hill, Salvation Hill, and the Royal Mint, etc., come to be opened, very large areas of land will be required for various purposes connected with mining operations thereon, and because a hill is not working now, or a lode has not been discovered in it, there is no reason to think that such lode does not exist. New inventions in the reduction of ores, new methods of handling the ore, or a new demand for certain minerals, or a lowering of transportation rates, may convert what is now of little worth into something of great value any day. The signs of the times are, however, against conserving anything, or against making any provision for the future whatever, and so we will keep on lamenting the blindness of our fathers, and all the time we commit blunders under the plea of Liberalism more short-sighted and stupid than any act of theirs. While we are passing laws for resuming land for closer settlement, under the plea that there is an exigent demand for the same, we go gravely on selling what we might have to resume again to-morrow, and so the policy of blunder progresses apace7 .


12 June 1907

Prominent Gulgong Residents 1907
Prominent Gulgong Residents 1907

Back Row (Reading from Left to Right). - Ferris, J. Powell, C. E. Hilton, A. P. Lambert, H. P. Blaney, and A. Stewart. Front Row. - G. J. Scott, R. White, P. J. Wade. J. O'Brien, R. Hornsey, Master N. Geer9 .

12 June 1907
THE Gulgong district is at present suffering considerably from drought. On many of the large properties starving sheep are being daily killed for their pelts, and apple-trees and other green bushes are being utilised as feed for the stock. The rain, when it comes, will, however, speedily work a wonderful change in the appearance of this great district, the agricultural and pastoral resources of which are widely known.
It is also a rich mining centre. A great amount of gold continues to be found, while several fairly good copper shows are being tested. Thousands of acres have been worked, and records show that in 1871 and the succeeding five years, nearly 13¼ tons of gold were sent away under police escort. In one of the leads, it is said, the wash-dirt had a mean width of 300 feet, by a depth of one foot, while the average yield of gold was over an ounce per load. The principal centres of the mining industry now are out Canadian, Home Rule, and Cumbandry way.
Last week a crushing of 45 tons of ore from the property of Messrs. E. M. Bowman, H. Crossing, and C. E. Hilton, at Salvation Hill, was put through the battery (a compact and up-to-date plant which cost £2000). A splendid sample of coarse gold was obtained. The syndicate has also under lease 11 acres on the famous Red Hill, at Gulgong, noted in the early seventies for the phenomenally rich patches of gold unearthed at shallow depths. On this property there are enormous bodies, in sections, and intersected by dykes of diorite, felsite, and porphry, containing large bunches and impregnations of iron pyrites, and sulphides in a decomposed slate, which give consistent, and, at times, splendid gold prospects by dollying, to a depth of 60 feet. Below this level the sulphides are of an undecomposed nature, from which good assays have also been obtained. A crushing of 160 tons is now being put through the battery, the ore being taken over an area of 300 feet. The vast body of ore material, intersected by laminations of small and large bodies of quartz, is confined between two well-defined slate walls. The result of the crushing is being awaited with the deepest interest by local residents, and, should the return prove satisfactory, some thousands of pounds will be spent in developing the mine. This will mean employment for a large number of miners, thereby opening up a new era of prosperity for Gulgong.
Great disappointment has been caused by the postponement of the starting of the railway from Mudgee to Dunedoo. As Gulgong is situated 207 miles west of Sydney, with train facilities for dealing with wheat, etc., much benefit was anticipated, and large areas of country have been cleared and put under cultivation. At present meetings are being organised throughout the district to urge reconsideration of the question by the Government10 .


9 June 1910
Gulgong Reminiscences
(By "Old Times.")
Now that the railway to Gulgong is an accomplished fact, and the vast products of that splendid district will have a chance to be developed, it will not be out of place to go back a few years and look at "Gulgong as it was" - viz., a sheep run, where the shepherd might be seen tending his flock over the hills and valleys that later on became the scenes of excitement caused by the discovery of gold on the Red Hill.
The rush was in full blast in or about 1870, when miners from all parts of Australia and New Zealand were rushing to the new field - men of all nations and colours, with one object in view. The first gold was struck in or about the Red Hill by Saunders, Downey, and others, in very rich patches in shallow ground, which soon was followed by other finds on Adam's Lead, Tallewang, and various other spots, all in shallow ground. The 'old hands' in the Mudgee district had no faith in deep ground, as on most of all the fields in that district, as soon as the gold got in the deep ground, it scattered and ran out. So it remained to the men coming from other parts to get the heavy deposits in the deep leads - viz., the Happy Valley and Black Leads, which made the field the most permanent and richest that was ever opened in New South Wales. During the working of those places hundreds of miners were prospecting for other leads throughout the district, and it was not long before the washing extended for miles, in every direction, and as new finds occurred the excitement increased. So that, in a short time, the population increased by thousands, and buildings were going up in all directions. Hotels, stores, restaurants, music and dancing halls, theatres, and every form of amusement, and all doing well, were crowded nightly. For the miner believes in fully enjoying himself. The scene at night, is worth remembering. Hundreds of miners paraded the streets. Old friends not seen for years met. The latest rush was discussed, as also the washing-up of some of the rich claims. Men who had arrived on the field only a few weeks before "hard up" found themselves suddenly wealthy. Thus the excitement went on. Money was flowing freely; the farmers had great times. All they could produce was swept up at top prices, which a few months before was a drug on their hands. Stacks of hay that had stood on their farms unsaleable for years were cut up into chaff and sold, and it was soon noticeable that the old spring-cart for family use gave place to the stylish buggy. The town consisted of two long streets - Main and Herbert streets - which intersected right in the centre of the town, and this was the rendezvous for all hands; and from about seven in the evening until twelve was almost impassable - a complete medley: miners, newsagents, cheap-jacks, bellmen, hawkers, etc. The principal place of amusement was the Prince of Wales Theatre, and there was a splendid company, mostly from Sydney, as about that time one of the large theatres was burnt down, so that the whole company came up to the golden city.
Miss Joey Gougenheim was the lessee, and a great favourite. Ashton's circus was also going nightly, having settled down permanently on the field. The principal hotels were Con Driscoll's, Bill Self's, Mrs. Kelly's, and John Hunter's, the latter being on the corner of the two streets, lit up with gas made on the premises. The buildings were all of pine, and the chief feature in them was the showy fronts, paint and gilding being lavished on them, while the inside walls were mostly calico, paste, and paper. 'Shanties' were numerous, but mostly confined to the back streets, where some of them did really good business. There were three banks at this time, and they had a busy time. Besides the usual business, they bought gold, and as that had to be properly cleansed, the 'pestel and mortar' was going almost night and day.
Sickness was very prevalent, and the undertaker was kept going. About this time gold was struck in Rouse's Paddock, which proved very rich. Lowe's Paddock also proved to be a 'jeweller's shop.' The Canadian was also coming to the front, not so rich as the other leads that were washing, but noted for the great depth of wash dirt; in fact, the extent of the field was not properly known, as water beat the miners out. It may be in years to come that the deep leads of the Canadian may be developed. Stott's Paddock was a splendid lead, and some very rich claims were worked there. John Scott, the owner of the paddock, was farming it on a small scale at the time gold was traced into it, and after making his pile he built a fine home on the spot where he first put down his swag on his arrival in the locality. Most of the farmers now settled down about Gulgong are pioneers, who made money in the golden days, and are now reaping the reward of their pluck and perseverance by seeing their offsprings all well settled and independent around them. Some of the old identities of the roaring days are still to be met, and others have gone to return no more. The miners at that time were a fine lot of men, who had followed up the game for years, and had seen most of the rushes in Australia from beginning to end.
During the great exciting days of Gulgong the most good order prevailed on the field. Although thousands of men of all classes were there, very little of the rowdy element got a footing, as the genuine miners would not tolerate anything in that line. For the population that were there, the police were very few, and their services were not much required. The post-office was at Angove's store, and the sight of the field after the mail coach had arrived and the letters, etc, sorted the postmaster, mounted on a packing-case, called out the names alphabetically, and each person answered his name and received his letters, after being passed over the heads of the assembled thousands11 .


Gulgong subdivision plans
Gulgong subdivision plans


30 January 1922
Jumble Pen Sketches.
(By Edwin Richards.)
The reference in a Sydney paper recently re Mr. Lester Stuart Donaldson a retired stipendiary magistrate, who was C.P.S. in Gulgong in the days of Gulgong's livest period of the great goldfields. There were several minor 'fields' outside Gulgong proper, such as Rouse's Pad dock. The Three Mile, Canadian Lead, Home Rule, besides several 'picaninny' rushes, within easy stages of the great central field. Most important, too, and revealing the great magnificence of the historic Eldorado were the Black Lead, The Happy Valley, Mat Homer's Paddock, etc., all of which were associated in various ways with the rich yields mention of which Mr. Donaldson now revives to memory as identified in some way or another with the 'golden holes' that ultimately contributed 30 tons of gold to the record of the great field Gulgong proved. Mr. Donaldson will be gratified to learn that the accredited discoverer of the field, Mr. Thomas Saunders, survives. Indeed the two veterans must both be verging on the side of the sere and yellow leaf of life. Yes, the writer was 10 years of age on the day he witnessed the grand panoramic spectacular landscape of the far-reaching tented early 'goldfield' on the day of the visit to the Gulgong rush. Accompanied by his father and Charley Spratt, an old Louisa digging native, born clone to the site of the sensational find of the Blackfellow's Nugget. As our horses pressed through the crowd of men who thronged the early Herbert-street, it might be said the pony had to shoulder his way through the crowd, extending the length of Herbert street, upwards of a mile as I re member now. I have only witnessed the like in Main-street, Hill End, when the great crowd surged as a gathering in George-street, Sydney, on the night of some big function. It is only the men and lads whose privilege it was to see Hill End and Gulgong in the days of the 'rushes' who can now best fully appreciate what 'diggerdom' and mining meant to Australia in the long ago. And Australia is languishing for the like repetition of those far-reaching influences of the merry past. We want the similar for the prosperity of the men on the land - for the producer, for the men who grow wheat, as it was for the few 'boss cockies' of the time with a few ration sheep to sell, and so the squatter found a regular market amongst the butchers on the diggings. Meat was Id and 2d per lb. at times. It is stated the late Mr. George Rouse, sen., made the Tambaroora goldfield his best market, and sold large numbers of 'fats' from Beaudesert Homestead and from the outback stations. But for the squatters meat famines must have occurred on the diggings, when droughts prevailed. Mr. Donaldson will be remembered by not a few as the son-in-law of the esteemed church missionary pioneer, the late Arch deacon James Gunther. Of the golden holes in connection with the Gulgong goldfields there were numbers which 'panned out' immensely rich. And to those 'milk dishes' of gold referred to in the article mentioned of, the suggestion was somewhat far-fetched by the newspaper interviewer of the ex-Gulgongite, evidently. The results of the washings (as the technical term is understood in digging par lance) were only made known after the 'dirt' containing the gold richness had gone through the puddling machine. In the days of the Louisa the miner was said to have been satisfied at the end of the day, in the primitive mining era, in 'pannikins full.'' Will the like ever be again13 ?


6 June 1924
Gulgong, in the great gold-fever period of its existence, had perhaps a population of 30,000, whilst the adjoining fields of Home Rule, Canadian, etc., were equally populous. Those were the roaring days, when the quaint little township, with its crooked and narrow streets, possessed almost innumerable hotels of a type, ran its theatres, on the boards of which some of the finest actors and operatic stars who came from abroad to Australia, appeared before enthusiastic audiences, and were, so historical records have it, pelted with nuggets instead of the orthodox bouquet. The glory of good old Gul gong has well-nigh completely departed, though there are those who still have much faith in an early revival, and who prove it by working to that end, opening up old "shows," and expending capital in deep-lead proposals, which they hope will materialise as did the fields of Ballarat when similarly treated. Let's hope that their abiding faith will be duly and appreciably rewarded14 .


10 August 1939
Gulgong's Early Days 'TOWN ON GOLD'
Gulgong is built on gold, according to Mr. W. Edwards, who has the following to say In the 'Coolah Chronicle':-
I have seen some great sights of gold at Gulgong. I remember I was only very small at that time, going into Mr. George Hill's hotel, which was, and I believe is still, named the Post Office Hotel. At the time It was full of diggers and others, who were admiring a bucket of washed gold that was placed on the bar counter. That was the most gold I ever saw in one lot. I have no idea what its value could have been.
My father lifted me up in his arms for me to see it. The town of Gulgong is built on gold. I remember we boys used to go specking' in what is now the main street, after rain, and we have often got some very nice specks of gold. That was before the streets were built up and metalled. I have heard that some men cut out a cellar for a business man in the town and took the dirt that came out of it for payment, which paid them very well. I remember a baker by the name of Scully who made a lot of money on Gulgong by standing to the diggers for bread and groceries on condition that, when they were not able to pay for same, some of them would allow him a half-share or quarter share in their claims; and that was how he made his money. But some of the clever gentlemen got him to run for Parliament, and he started by entertaining all hands and the cook. I have heard that by the time of polling day it had cost him £3000, and he missed getting returned to Parliament as well. This was done as a practical joke, which stands as a dis grace to those men who carried it out. Those were the roaring days of Gulgong. There were quite a large number of business places at that time. One of the leading stores was conducted by a China man, Sun Tong Lie. Another, Hong Hing, and I don't know how many market gardeners, trotting around with their bamboo sticks, with a basket hanging on each end, full of vegetables for sale. It was surprising the heavy loads they could carry.
Now for some of the hotels. Starting from Adams Lead, Mrs. Downie kept the Moonlight Hotel; then the Family Hotel, Mrs. Kilby; then Barney Naughton, the Continental Hotel; and the All Nations, run by Choglans. The Post Office Hotel, Gee Hill, on the corner of Herbert street, was the leading hotel, people by name of Seless; then the Horse and Jockey Hotel, by Tom Ryan. There were others, which I cannot place. There was a very good theatre there, and some of the best talent from Sydney used to visit, such people as Maggie Oliver, Madame Coloh, Joey Gudgln, all the best in the country at that time. Of course there was plenty of money there, but badly distributed, as there was also a great deal of poverty. On Saturday nights it was impossible for any kind of vehicle to get through the crowds of people that would gather in the streets. I don't think we will ever witness in this State another gold rush like that of Gulgong15 .


1 Simpson, Phillip. Historical Guide to New South Wales. North Melbourne, Vic: Australian Scholarly Publishing Pty Ltd, 2020, p. 329.
2 View of Gulgong. (1872, January 27). Australian Town and Country Journal (Sydney, NSW : 1870 - 1919), p. 17. Retrieved May 1, 2024, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article70492491
3 GULGONG AND ITS NEIGHBOURHOOD. (1872, October 5). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 436. Retrieved October 1, 2023, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article162666234
4 Gulgong, N. S. Wales, and the Mining Industry. (1884, October 4). Australian Town and Country Journal (Sydney, NSW : 1870 - 1919), p. 26. Retrieved May 3, 2023, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article71018195
5 No title (1895, December 20). Mudgee Guardian and North-Western Representative (NSW : 1890 - 1954), p. 19. Retrieved May 1, 2024, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article156200194
6 GULGONG—A FAMOUS NEW SOUTH WALES GOLD FIELD. (1897, February 13). Australian Town and Country Journal (Sydney, NSW : 1870 - 1919), p. 28. Retrieved June 3, 2024, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article71289843
7 Gulgong. (1901, October 26). Australian Town and Country Journal (Sydney, NSW : 1870 - 1919), p. 25. Retrieved October 1, 2023, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article71473891
8 IN AND AROUND GULGONG. (1907, June 12). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 1513. Retrieved April 17, 2023, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article165387027
9 IN AND AROUND GULGONG. (1907, June 12). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 1513. Retrieved May 30, 2024, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article165387027
10 IN AND AROUND GULGONG. (1907, June 12). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 1513. Retrieved May 30, 2024, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article165387027
11 Gulgong Reminiscences. (1910, June 9). Freeman's Journal (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1932), p. 7. Retrieved September 28, 2023, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article108026594
13 Jumble Pen Sketches. (1922, January 30). Mudgee Guardian and North-Western Representative (NSW : 1890 - 1954), p. 10. Retrieved October 1, 2023, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article155648361
14 PEN PICTURES (1924, June 6). The Wingham Chronicle and Manning River Observer (NSW : 1898 - 1954), p. 3. Retrieved April 17, 2023, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article166262538
15 REMINISCENCES (1939, August 10). Mudgee Guardian and North-Western Representative (NSW : 1890 - 1954), p. 13. Retrieved October 1, 2023, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article162233333

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