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Kandos Town

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See also Candos Town

Kandos (Co. Roxburgh) 32°52’S. 149°58’E., 46 km SE of Mudgee; Combamolang till 1828, then Combimelong till 1849, then Coombermelon till 1874, then Coomber till 1914, then Candos till 1915; surveyed 1914 by Dawson, subdivided 1915, first land sales 1916; coalmining (started 1910 by W. McKay), cement 1916+, wool, beef, pigs, aerial ropeway 3.75 miles (6 km) b. 1921 by Gibson Battle & Co. Ltd.; ambulance station 1945; Angl. C. (St Lawrence’s) b. 1921 by Worrall, d. by Harold Robert Hardwick; brick-kiln (J. Owen); bushfires 1929, 1952, 2009; cement works (Aust. Portland Cement Co.) estab. 1914-16, closed 1931, reopened, kiln chimneys demolished 1978; CH b. 1929 by R. Gillies, closed 1975; clock tower; clothing factory 1943; colliery (Kandos No. 3, Kandos Collieries Pty. Ltd.; copper smelter o. 1918 by CSA Mines Ltd., demolished 1930; cordial factories: William Glynn (sold 1926 to A. Higginson), Beau Sharrock, Jack W. Symonds 1919, Thoms and O’Brien; engineering works; FB (station b. 1954); floods 1921, 1929, 1950; hospital 1917; hurricane 1928; joinery (Gordon Fuller); lock-up 1918; measles epidemic 1935; Meth. C. (United Mission) 1919 d. by Floyd S. Richards, closed 1983; miners’ strikes 1938 and 1949; PO 1915, new one b. 1926; Presb. C. b. 1927 by Andy Reid, d. by George Reilly; PS b. 1918 by Country Concrete Constructions, new one 1961; powerhouse; quarries; railway turntable 1928, 75 ft (22.9 m)derelict; 3 reservoirs; Rom. Cath. C. (St Dominic’s) 1922 d, by Stanley Jeffrey; RS 1914; Sawmills: Harry Franks, O’Brien & Son 1921, George Reilly; school (Coomber till 1914, then Candos till 1915) 1898, new one b. 1924 by John B. Simpkins and Henry Thomas, destroyed 1925, replacement b. 1929 by N. R. Morris, additions 1962, 1967, 1969, 1974, 2008; sewerage 1972; streets electric lit 1920; telephone 1916; TX 1917, automatic 1978; typhoid 1924; Unit. C., closed, sold 2010; water reticulation 1955, augmentation 1963 and 1987; pop. 1,033 (1919), с.1,500 (1921), 2,864 (1925), 2,769 (1929), 2,256 (1933), 1,757 (1947), 1,728 (1954), 2,195 (1961), 2,051 (1966), 1,981 (1971), 1,792 (1976), 1,626 (1981), 1,588 (1986), 1,525 (1991), 1,439 (1996), 1,339 (2001), 1,306 (2006), 1,284 (2011)1 .


22 June 1917
Only those who visit the thriving industrial centre of Kandos are able to appreciate the progress being made both at the cement works and in the general appearance of the township. It is about 18 months since the first land sale in the village proper was held. It was fully recognised at that time that the future of Kandos was assured, as illustrated by the number of allotments disposed of, and the high prices obtained. Later the second sale on the opposite side of the railway was held. Up to the date of the first sale there was no uniformity in regard to building. Houses were run up anywhere, but since surveys have been carried out, the streets are gradually assuming a more modern aspect. There remains yet much to do before the thoroughfares can be regarded in the light of roads, but a start has been made, and the future is in the lap of the gods. The hotel, conducted by one of the most genial of men, Mr. Dan Howard, and built at a cost - including land - of £11,000, would do credit to any town. Messrs. Walsh Bros. have just completed fine premises in which to carry on their butchery and bakery business, while the general stores, bearing the signs of Messrs. J. P. McGrath, Messrs. Long and Peterson, and Messrs. Smith and Winchester, are certainly commodious and well distributed. Mr. Jones, too, has nearing completion a neat shop, in which to carry on his fruit and newsagency business. It is said that efforts are being made to have the neighborhood declared an urban area, but the suggestion is as yet only in its early stages. The class of residence that is now supplanting the hut is quite modern in appearance, and many of them are of bungalow design2 .

16 August 1917
Electric Light Scheme. - The electric light scheme for the town of Kandos was discussed on a letter read from Mr. F. Richards, Superintendent of Works at the Kandos Works, stating that owing to the difficulty of obtaining the necessary transformers nothing could be done yet, but as soon as they arrived there would be nothing to interfere with the progress of the work of installation, as the Rylstone Shire Council has undertaken to clear the streets of all obstructionsMudgee Guardian and North-Western Representative. ‘Kandos.’ 16 August 1917. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article156185881.
20 December 1917
Town Progress - Numerous residential buildings are being erected at Kandos, and as the town already claims a very solid population, there is no doubt that Kandos will be one of the leading industrial centres in New South Wales in the very near future3 .


3 May 1918
It is interesting to note the increasing number of new bungalow residences that grace the northern side of Angus-avenue, as well as the new neat cottages going up in other localities. Mr. McGrath's fine new business premises lend a distinct air of progressiveness to the western end of the "avenue," whilst the school buildings, not far distant, are now approaching completion. The two well-constructed weatherboard structures were in the grounds of Mudgee high school prior to being removed to Kandos. This arrangement was found necessary owing to the increased attendance of children at Kandos. The school site is on nice level ground, which has yet to be fenced, and is about five minutes walk from the old one. There will be considerably improved accommodation. Mr. Meany, the popular headmaster, will soon be enjoying increased advantages in home life, as the old school-room - which is attached to the residence - is to be incorporated into the home. In addition, three more rooms are in course of construction. The price for bringing the school buildings from Mudgee and re-erecting them, in conjunction with the new rooms of concrete blocks, was £270Lithgow Mercury. ‘Kandos Notes’. 3 May 1918. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article218474923.

20 September 1918
The fact that only two blocks of land were disposed of at the land sale on Saturday (when over 30 central blocks were put up for auction by Messrs. Hardwick and Co.), looks as if the good horse has been flogged to death in regard to fancy prices for choice allotments. Plenty of local residents attended the sale, but were not prepared to give abnormal prices for residential sites. Maybe the boom has burst.
The Rylstone Shire Council is at present conferring with the Cement Company in regard to lighting Kandos with electricity. The matter has been in abeyance for some considerable time, but now the work is to be pushed on as soon as the necessaries are completed. 4 .

13 December 1918
(From our own Correspondent.)
The Bank of N.S.W. has started operations here, with Mr. W. Fowler as branch manager. This, with the A.B.C. bank and the two savings banks brings the total up to four, which speaks for itself in regard to the abnormal growth of the town5 .


23 January 1919
Kandos News
We are still waiting patiently for the Cement Company to instal our electric lighting system for Kandos. The last hitch between the Company and the Shire has been overcome by the Council agreeing to delete a certain clause in the agreement regarding liability for accidents which was objectionable to the Company. There is no reason left why they should not proceed with the work at once.
Building operations in Kandos are forging ahead notwithstanding the dry weather and the scarcity of water. The Cordial Factory of Sergeant J. W. Symonds, opposite the Kandos Hotel, in Angus Avenue is rapidly rising on one of the best business sites in the township under the expert supervision of Mr. Kelly. Sergeant Symonds anticipates having the building completed in about a month. It will consist of two shops on the Angus Avenue frontage, built of Lithgow bricks, each shop measuring 12 by 14 inside and a weatherboard building at the back of the section for the manufacture of cordials. Speculation has been rife as to where Sergeant Symonds is going to secure his water from, but suffice it to say at the present juncture that arrangements have been made for an ample supply so that in the ordinary course of events nothing can prevent another industry being added to those already existing in Kandos in the course of a month or two. Sergeant Symonds is to be congratulated upon the pluck and enterprise, he has displayed in thus embarking upon a big enterprise under very discouraging circumstances and in the face of obstacles that would daunt many a more timid investor. We heartily wish him every success in his venture.
Who said Kandos was short of water? We discussed informally the reasons why the people of the district did not avail themselves of the supply provided by the Shire Council on December 26 and 27 last, and the tenor of the remarks passed was certainly in the Council's favor. We trust that Mr. Hope, the Shire Engineer will have a report to make on the Cudgegong River scheme at the next Shire Council meeting. Notwithstanding the apparent apathy of the people of Kandos on the water question it is certain that the township cannot progress to any extent until it is permanently solved. It is as much to the interest of the Shire Council to see our district grow and prosper as it is to the residents of Kandos, and we are confident that they are fully alive to the importance of catering properly for this coming industrial centre. The Cudgegong River scheme of supplying water is the only one that can prove of permanent benefit to us, and it will pay for itself in a few years through the rapid increase in population and prosperity that will follow its inception. We wish to place it on record that when approached by an officer of the Kandos Progress Association for permission to take samples of the Cement Company's water for analysing purposes, Mr. O. F. Richards, the local superintendent of the works, not only granted it immediately, but also offered to provide sample bottles. This shows a very commendable spirit of co-operation on the part of Mr. Richards, and indicates the fact that he is quite as anxious to see that the residents of the district have pure water as the people themselves6 .

4 August 1919
(From our own Correspondent.)
Building operations continue to flourish, and buildings, more particularly residences, are going up everywhere.
The residence of Mr. F. S. Richards, superintendent of N.S.W. Cement, Lime, and Coal Co., Ltd., is nearly finished. It is built on American lines, and being on a hill, commands a fine view of the surrounding country7 .


6 September 1920
Building Progress at Kandos
Messrs. Blyth and Blyth are erecting a three-roomed cottage in Fleming Street for Mr. H. B Grove (manager of the Co-operative Stores), which promises to be a good job.
Mr. J. Kelly, builder has left a good result behind him in Mr. J. Walsh's cottage which is probably one of the best cottages in Kandos. It has been built of Lithgow bricks with Elrich Fibre plaster ceilings and is a pretty design. The cottage is nearing completion.
Mr. Walsh intends building two more cottages on his block of ground adjoining the block he has just built on.
Mr. James Owen is completing the erection of Mr. J. C. Strong's cottage.
Mr. Babbage is engaged, filling in the foundations of the Church of England building, which promises to be a good job.
Mr. J. Green is nearing the completion of F. S. Richards' house in Rodger street.
Mr. R. Adams is putting the final section on to his house in Fleming Street8 .

12 November 1920
(From our own Correspondent.)
A terrific wind storm visited Kandos on Tuesday night, doing much damage to property. Several roofs were blown off, and one house, which was just completed, was rendered useless. So great was the force of the wind that a motor car coming round a corner was nearly overturned. Rain set in this morning, and so far we have received 39 points9 .


29 June 1922
There is a perfectly clear understanding between the Kandos Cement Company and Rylstone Shire Council in connection with the necessity for standpipes being erected in Angus Avenue without delay. The Shire President, accompanied by Councillors W. R. Jones and A. G. Jennings, visited the proposed site on Tuesday afternoon, where they met Mr. F. S. Richards (superintendent of the works) and decided to go straight ahead with the construction of the standpipes. The Company will carry out the construction and the expense will be borne by the Council10 .

12 July 1922
(By a Recent Visitor).
Those who visit Kandos at lengthy intervals are most struck with the growth of the place, and especially with the expansion of the works. When the writer first visited the industry it was a comparatively small concern, but the extensions involving the introduction of new and ponderous machinery, are now apparent on all sides. The end is by no means yet, as plans are out for the erection of new boilerhouses, etc., while the erection of a new reinforced concrete stack is to be commenced almost immediately. The officers now in charge of the various departments are evidently a very competent body. In this estimation the superintendent Mr. Richards, heartily concurs.
The writer was on Saturday shown the recently equipped casualty ward which has been set apart in a neat cottage building, about 100 yards from the main portion of the works. This room, which is snow-white from end to end, contains a bed, stretchers, splints, examination table, and all restoratives necessary in cases of accident. It is indeed a credit to the company, and is certainly an example which should be followed by the proprietors of every works employing a number of men engaged among machinery, underground, in quarries, etc.
With regard to the town itself, striking evidences of progress are to be seen on all sides, in the erection of new modern homes for the people; of these there is still a big shortage. From a reliable source, the writer learned that if 50 homes could be supplied in Kandos tomorrow, they would be immediately occupied. Then, there are in course of erection and about to be started, several additional business places in Angus Avenue. Mr. Wilds has the walls of a new butcher's shop nearly roof-high at the eastern end, while Mr. Walsh is about to proceed with the erection of two shops between his butchery and the Bank of N.S.W., at the western end of the avenue. The pretty dressed-stone Church of England - the foundations of which were only laid when the writer last visited the town - has been completed and duly consecrated, while the commodious Catholic Church 70 x 30 inside, is well advanced. The edifice stands on a commanding knoll, and may be seen - when the intervening small trees are cut down - from all parts of the town. Provision is also being made for school work to be held in the church when finished, during the week days. Again, improvement is noticeable in the wide principal street, in which, here and there, property owners have laid down lengths of cement footpath opposite their business places. Taking it all round, there does seem to be a big future before this centre, and if progress is made during the next seven years in keeping with the past seven - that is since the first land sale - Kandos will then be a very substantial, as well as a very attractive industrial centre.
Dr. Poidevin, Dentist Caulder, and Nurse Fraser, of the Education Department, arrived in Kandos on Tuesday last week for the purpose of giving attention to the children at the public schools of the district. Their headquarters will be at Kandos, and after dealing with the children there, they will visit the whole of the schools in the district. They expect that quite a month will be required to complete the work which lies before them.
The Kandos school, which has now an enrolment of 200 children, is working one teacher short, and Mr. Meany, the headmaster, finds that the extra duties imposed as a result keep him pretty busy. The school carries three assistants in addition to the headmaster. Some time ago the assistants were transferred to other districts, one - Miss Wallace, to Oakey Park - but only one has so far been appointed to Kandos11 .

24 August 1922
Mr. Richards, superintendent at the Kandos works, says that the standpipe will be erected within a month. The tanks are almost completed, and Mr. Richards expects to have them all in order by the time mentioned12 .


8 March 1923
Owner, Messrs. Caldwell and Smith; licensee. Mrs. Florence Clifford.
Mr. P. R. Higgins (instructed by Messrs. Stacey and Bootle, Gul gong) represented both owners and licensee.
Sergeant Tracey, Rylstone, gave evidence that the building was not in good condition. A fruit and soft drink shop adjoined under the same roof. There was also one hotel in Kandos, which sold wine. The population of Kandos was 1900 within a mile. Within two miles it would be 2100. The place was well conducted. In his opinion the place could be done without.
To Mr. Higgins: The licensee was a good character. The town was rapidly increasing. If new premises were erected they would be more acceptable. The nearest wine license would be at Mudgee 37 miles away. The industries were permanent, and were enlarging.
Florence Smith, licensee, gave evidence that her average takings were £30 a week, and the daily average of customers about 50. The business was growing; so also was the population. The expansion of business justified the building of larger premises; she intended to build if the license remained.
The board noted a discrepancy between the statement submitted to the court and the return made in accordance with the Act. It was explained the return was prepared by the firm of Caldwell's Ltd. The board asked that a fresh declaration be made.
Frank John Caldwell, manager of Caldwell's Ltd., gave evidence that he had plans prepared for a new building to submit to the licensing court. If the license were allowed to remain the building, at a cost of £2000, would be gone on with.
Ross I. Penman, Rylstone shire clerk, gave evidence that Kandos was thriving. The new buildings erected in 1918 totalled 60, at a cost of £14,000; 1918, 28, costing £8500, 1920, 18, costing £6000; 1921, 32, costing £12,600; 1922, 42, costing £16,300; 1923, 4 buildings to date. He considered the building provided a public convenience and should remain.
Floyd S. Richards, superintendent of the Kandos Cement Co., gave evidence as a prohibitionist, saying that he had kept a close watch on the effects of liquor on the men employed by the company. In his opinion no one handled a bar in Kandos as well as Mrs. Clifford. Kandos was rapidly growing, and would continue to thrive. The number of men employed by his company was just under 600. The cement plant was being expanded. Eight years ago the capital of the company was £250,000, now it was £1,000,000. The original plans were designed for four kilns, the last of the kilns being now on the water. The future of the plant was laid out on the assumption that the coal and limestone would last four kilns 200 years. The present intention was to extend the plant to 12 kilns and additional lands had been taken up with coal and limestone in sight to ensure sufficient material to last the full 200 years. Personally, as a prohibitionist, he was averse to licenses being granted of any kind, but if the present wine license were to remain, in his opinion it could not be in better hands than Mrs. Clifford's13 .

1 Simpson, Phillip. Historical Guide to New South Wales. North Melbourne, Vic: Australian Scholarly Publishing Pty Ltd, 2020, p. 384.
2 Lithgow Mercury. ‘Kandos’. 22 June 1917. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article218769463.
3 Mudgee Guardian and North-Western Representative. ‘Kandos News’. 20 December 1917. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article156185175.
4 Lithgow Mercury. ‘Kandos’. 20 September 1918. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article218468972.
5 Lithgow Mercury. ‘Kandos’. 13 December 1918. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article218469797.
6 Mudgee Guardian and North-Western Representative. ‘Kandos News’. 23 January 1919. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article157144494.
7 Lithgow Mercury. ‘Kandos’. 4 August 1919. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article218617147.
8 Mudgee Guardian and North-Western Representative. ‘Building Progress at Kandos’. 6 September 1920. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article157032683.
9 Lithgow Mercury. ‘Kandos’. 12 November 1920. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article218457227.
10 Mudgee Guardian and North-Western Representative. ‘Kandos Stand Pipes’. 29 June 1922. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article155747807.
11 Lithgow Mercury. ‘Kandos Notes’. 12 July 1922. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article219699903.
12 Mudgee Guardian and North-Western Representative. ‘Kandos Stand Pipe’. 24 August 1922. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article155737638.
13 Mudgee Guardian and North-Western Representative. ‘Kandos Wine License’. 8 March 1923. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article155732094.

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